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Mark S. Reiter

Director
  • Professor of Soils and Nutrient Management
Mark Reiter
Eastern Shore AREC, Virginia Tech
33446 Research Drive
Painter, VA 23420

The goal of my research program at Virginia Tech is to improve the efficiency, productivity, quality, and overall sustainability of Virginia’s grain, fiber, and vegetable farming sectors. Specifically, I focus on soil and nutrient management for the aforementioned production systems. I strive to develop innovative soil management and soil fertility strategies that utilize new technologies, new methods for fertilizer applications, and testing of new fertilizer sources that will increase overall productivity and reduce nutrient losses to the environment (especially nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur).

Education & Training

  • 2008 - Ph.D. University of Arkansas Crop, Soil, & Environmental Sciences
  • 2007* - Ghent University, Belgium Soil Fertility
  • 2003 - M.S. Auburn University Agronomy and Soils
  • 2001 - B.S. Virginia Tech Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences

       *Bio-Renewable Resources Technology exchange as part of Ph.D. program.

Experience

  • 2021 - Present Professor, School of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Virginia Tech
  • 2020 - Present Director, Eastern Shore Agricultural Research and Extension Ctr., Virginia Tech
  • 2014 - 2021 Associate Professor, School of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Virginia Tech
  • 2008 - 2014 Assistant Professor, Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences, Virginia Tech
  • 2004 - 2009 Senior Graduate Assistant, Crop, Soil, & Environ. Sciences, Univ. of Arkansas
  • 2002 - 2003 Graduate Teaching Assistant, Agronomy and Soils, Auburn University
  • 2001 - 2002 Graduate Research Assistant, Agronomy and Soils, Auburn University

Link to curriculum vita

The Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences Department's faculty and staff at the Eastern Shore AREC strive to fulfill the College of Agriculture’s key initiative of agricultural profitability and environmental sustainability. Major tasks are to assist producers, agency personnel, and other stakeholders with production, environmental, and political issues as they arise. Through troubleshooting and stakeholder contacts, topics for applied research for nutrient and soil management are discovered and research projects are implemented.

Assisting producers with nutrient and soil management concerns is the major focus of my research and Extension programs, which will increase producer’s productivity, efficiency, and profitability while increasing environmental sustainability. Research and Extension programs focus on all major vegetable and agronomic commodities in Virginia, including barley, cotton, field corn, soybeans, wheat, potatoes, sweet corn, snap beans, and tomatoes. Various studies we have implemented compare new and alternative fertilizer sources as well as new techniques for fertilizer application. Fertilizer management in conservation tillage oriented systems is a major focus to assist producers with evolving Extension recommendations. Environmental integrity of fertilizer programs is being tested through various methods of groundwater monitoring. Reducing nutrient loss is important environmentally and agronomically to increase overall fertilizer use efficiency. Research is presented at producer oriented and scientific venues.

Program Focus

The goal of my research program at Virginia Tech is to improve the efficiency, productivity, quality, and overall sustainability of Virginia’s grain, fiber, and vegetable farming sectors. Specifically, I focus on soil and nutrient management for the aforementioned production systems. I strive to develop innovative soil management and soil fertility strategies that utilize new technologies, new methods for fertilizer applications, and testing of new fertilizer sources that will increase overall productivity and reduce nutrient losses to the environment (especially nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur).

Role of Graduate Students

Graduate students play an integral role in both my research and Extension programs. Graduate students are encouraged to develop their own research programs that has focus on major issues threatening Virginia’s row crop and vegetable sectors as well as the Chesapeake Bay. Projects may use innovative technologies, focus on a specific nutrient, or develop new soil management strategies and best management practices for the reduction of nutrient and sediment loss from production agricultural fields. Graduate students assist with daily field operations, data collection, laboratory procedures, data analysis, and presentation of data to interested stakeholders. Students routinely present their research data to local stakeholders via field days and producer meetings and to the scientific community via regional, national, and international conferences. 

Future Research

The driving force behind my research program is developing and providing Virginia producers with the necessary soil and nutrient management information that increases sustainability while improving their profit margins. Innovative fertilizer sources that recycle by-product nutrients (such as poultry litter and poultry litter ash) along with management strategies that increase overall fertilizer nutrient use efficiencies (such as precision Ag prescription maps) will continue to be a focus of my research program. I will also continue developing best management strategies that reduce soil erosion and improve overall soil tilthe to ensure that Virginia farmers are productive and economically viable for future generations.

Extension Program

My Extension program strives to provide pertinent information to growers, industry, and governmental agencies that will improve soil quality and nutrient use efficiencies. I network to stay current with other research being conducted and to integrate pertinent ideas into my own program that may be useful to Virginia farmers. New fertilizer sources and management strategies are tested on Agricultural Research and Extension Centers around Virginia and in commercial production fields. Newfound information is written into Extension publications and presented to growers and other stakeholders at field days, production meetings, and farmer oriented conferences. My favorite task is meeting and working with farmers, Extension agents, and other stakeholders around the Commonwealth to better understand the ever changing challenges being faced by Virginia farmers. From stakeholder input, I incorporate these new challenges and evolve my program to ultimately improve food and fiber production in Virginia.

Extension Philosophy

Dissemination of information to producers, Extension agents, and other stakeholders is imperative to having a pertinent and ever evolving Extension program. Information regarding alternative fertilizer sources, innovative agronomic cropping methods, novel cropping systems, and use of new technologies leads to information exchange to local, state, national, and international audiences at conferences, field days, production meetings, and through Extension publications. Ultimately, the most important and most satisfying task is assisting producers in their operations to become more efficient and profitable, while simultaneously reducing nutrient and sediment losses to the Chesapeake Bay. Being from a farm family myself, giving farmers the tools they need to survive in a global economy is a satisfying task both personally and professionally.

Book Chapters

Reiter, M.S. 2020. Chapter 7: Cash crop selection and rotation. In J. Bergtold and M. Sailus (eds). Conservation tillage systems in the Southeast. Sustainable Agriculture Research and Extension, Athens, GA.

Thomason, W.E., B.K. Chim, and M.S. Reiter. 2017. Zero-tillage cultivation of maize. Achieving sustainable cultivation of maize. 2:81-95. Burleigh Dodds Science Publishing. 

Refereed Publications (*Graduate Student; Total Number: 53)

  • Bagnall, D.K., C.L.S. Morgan, M. Cope, G.M. Bean, S. Cappellazzi, K. Greub, D. Liptzin, E. Rieke, P. Tracy, E. Aberle, A. Ashworth, O. Bañuelos Tavarez, …M.S. Reiter, et. al. 2022. Carbon-sensitive pedotransfer functions for plant available water. Soil Science Society of America Journal. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/saj2.20395
  • Brooks, K.*, S. Mourtzinis, S.P. Conley, M.S. Reiter, J. Gaska, D.L. Holshouser, T. Irby, J. Kleinjan, C. Knott, C. Lee, L. Lindsey, S. Naeve, J. Ross, M.P. Singh, R. Vann, and E. Matcham. 2022. Soybean yield response to sulfur and nitrogen additions across diverse US environments. Agronomy Journal. doi: https://10.1002/agj2.21216
  • Gyawali, A.J., M.S. Strickland, W.E. Thomason, M.S. Reiter, and R. Stewart. 2022. Quantifying short-term responsiveness and consistency of soil health parameters in row crop systems. Part 1: Developing a multivariate approach. Soil Tillage Research, 219. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2022.105354
  • Liptzin, D., C.E. Norris, S.B. Cappellazzi, G.M. Bean, M. Cope, K.L.H. Greub, E.L. Rieke, P.W. Tracy, E. Aberle, A. Ashworth, O. Bañuelos Tavarez, …M.S. Reiter, et. al. 2022. An evaluation of carbon indicators of soil health in long-term agricultural experiments. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2022.108708
  • Mott, J., O. Abaye, M.S. Reiter, and R.O. Maguire. 2022. Evaluating Effects of Bradyrhizobium and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Inoculation on Yield Components of Mung Bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) and Nitrogen Fixation. Agronomy, 12(10): 2358. doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12102358
  • Rieke, E.L., D.K. Bagnall, C.L.S. Morgan, K.D. Flynn, J.A. Howe, K.L.H. Greub, G.M. Bean, S.B. Cappellazzi, M. Cope, D. Liptzin, C.E. Norris, P.W. Tracy, …M.S. Reiter, et. al. 2022. Evaluation of aggregate stability methods for soil health. Geoderma. doi: 10.1016/j.geoderma.2022.116156
  • Rieke, E.L., S.G. Cappellazzi, M. Cope, D. Liptzin, G.M. Bean, K.L.H. Greub, C.E. Norris, P.W. Tracy, E. Aberle, A. Ashworth, O. Bañuelos Tavarez, …M.S. Reiter, et. al. 2022. Linking soil microbial community structure to potential carbon mineralization: A continental scale assessment of reduced tillage. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 168. doi: 10.1016/j.soilbio.2022.108618
  • Carneiro, R.*, K. Adie, D. Yu, M. Beverly, C. Neill, B. Zhang, T. Kuhar, S. Rideout, M. Reiter, H. Huang, S. O’Keefe, and S. Duncan. 2022. Understanding the Role of Overall Appearance and Color in Consumers' Acceptability of Edamame. Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems. doi: 10.3389/fsufs.2022.738453
  • Carneiro, R.*, S. Duncan, S. O'Keefe, D. Yu, H. Huang, Y. Yin, C. Neill, B. Zhang, T. Kuhar, S. Rideout, M. Reiter, J. Ross, P. Chen, and A. Gillen. 2021. Utilizing Consumer Perception of Edamame to Guide New Variety Development. Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems, 4. doi:10.3389/fsufs.2020.556580
  • Jian, J., X. Du, M.S. Reiter, and R.D. Stewart. 2021. A meta-analysis of global cropland soil carbon change from cover cropping. Soil Biology & Biochemistry. doi:10.1016/j.soilbio.2021.108389
  • Lord, N.*, T. Kuhar, S. Rideout, K. Sutton*, A. Alford, X. Li, X. Wu, M. Reiter, H. Doughty, and B. Zhang. 2021. Combining Agronomic and Pest Studies to Identify Vegetable Soybean Genotypes Suitable for Commercial Edamame Production in the Mid-Atlantic U.S. Agricultural Sciences, 12(07), 738-754. doi:10.4236/as.2021.127048
  • Millsaps, C.R.*, M.S. Reiter, B.M. Whitehurst, G.B. Whitehurst, R.O. Maguire, and W.E. Thomason. 2021. Granulated poultry litter ash acidulation and physical characteristics. Trans. ASABE 64(4):1227-1235. doi: 10.13031/trans.14164.
  • Murphy, C.M.*, D.L. Weller, M.S. Reiter, C.A. Bardsley*, J. Eifert, M. Ponder, S.L. Rideout, and L.K. Strawn. 2021. Anaerobic soil disinfestation, amendment-type, and irrigation regimen influence Salmonella survival and die-off in agricultural soils. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 13 pages. doi:10.1111/jam.15324
  • Sias, C.*, B.R. Wolters*, M.S. Reiter, and M.L. Flessner. 2021. Cover crops as a weed seed bank management tool: A soil down review. Italian Journal of Agronomy, pages. doi:10.4081/ija.2021.1852
  • Swoish, M.*, J.F. Da Cunha Leme Filho, M. Reiter, R. Stewart, and W. Thomason. 2021. Trinexapac-ethyl rate and timing impact on malt barley production in Virginia. Crop, Forage and Turfgrass Management. doi:10.1002/cft2.20101
  • Zhang, B., N. Lord*, T. Kuhar, S. Duncan, H. Huang, J. Ross, S. Rideout, A. Arancibia, M Reiter, S. Li, P. Chen, L. Mozzoni, A. Gillen, Y. Yin, C. Neill, R. Carneiro*, D. Yu, K. Sutton*, X. Li, Z. Wang, and G. Buss. 2021. 'VT Sweet': A vegetable soybean cultivar for commercial edamame production in the mid-Atlantic USA. Journal of Plant Registrations, 5 pages. doi:10.1002/plr2.20140
  • Acharya, T.P.*, M.S. Reiter, G. Welbaum, and R.A. Arancibia. 2020. Nitrogen uptake and use efficiency in sweet basil production under low tunnels. HortScience 54:429-435. doi:10.21273/HORTSCI14515-19.
  • Brasier, K.*, J. Oakes, M. Balota, M. Reiter, N. Jones, R. Pittman, C. Sneller, W. Thomason, and C. Griffey. 2020. Genotypic variation and stability for nitrogen use efficiency in winter wheat. Crop Sci. 60(1):32-49. Doi: 10.1002/csc2.20006
  • Jian, J., X. Du, M.S. Reiter, and R.D. Stewart. 2020. A meta-analysis of global cropland soil carbon changes due to cover cropping. Soil Biology Biochemistry. 143. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2020.107735.
  • Jian, J., B.J. Lester, X. Du, M.S. Reiter, and R.D. Stewart. 2020. A calculator to quantify cover crop effects on soil health and productivity. Soil Tillage Res. 199. doi: 10.1016/j.still.2020.104575
  • Norris, R.*, Chim, B.*, Evanylo, G., Reiter, M., and Thomason, W. (2020). Corn yield and soil nitrogen following winter annual cover crops interseeded into soybean. Crop Science. 60(5), 2667-2682. doi: 10.1002/csc2.20185.
  • Baxter, A.E.*, R.O Maguire, G. Whitehurst, D. Holshouser, and M.S. Reiter. 2019. Novel fertilizer as an alternative for supplying manganese and boron to soybeans. Commun. In Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 50(1):65-76.
  • Brasier, K.G.*, B.G. Tamang, N.R. Carpenter, T. Fukao, M.S. Reiter, R.M. Pittman, C.H. Sneller, W.E. Thomason, and C.A. Griffey. 2018. Photoperiod response gene PpD-D1 affects nitrogen use efficiency in soft red winter wheat. Crop Sci. 58(6):2593-2606.
  • Gu, G., L.K. Strawn, D.O. Oryang, J. Zheng, E.A. Reed, A.R. Ottesen, R.L. Bell, Y. Chen, S. Duret, D.T. Ingram, M.S. Reiter, R. Pfuntner, E.W. Brown, and S.L. Rideout. 2018. Agricultural practices influence salmonella contamination and survival in pre-harvest tomato production. Front. Microbiology. 9:2451.
  • Moore, P.A., H. Li, R. Burns, D. Miles, R. Maguire, J. Ogejo, M.S. Reiter, and M.D. Buser. 2018. Development and testing of the ARS air scrubber: A device for reducing ammonia emissions from animal rearing facilities. Front. Sustain. Food Syst. doi: https://doi.org/10.3389/fsufs.2018.00023.
  • Norris*, R., B.K. Chim, G. Evanylo, M. Reiter, and W. Thomason. 2018. Assessment of in-season soil nitrogen tests for corn planted into winter annual cover crops. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 82(6):1428-1436.
  • Parvej, M.R., A.S. Williams*, D.L. Holshouser, W.H. Frame, and M.S. Reiter. 2018. Double-crop soybean response to potassium on mid-Atlantic coastal plain and piedmont soils. Agon. J. 110(1):399-410.
  • Stewart, R.D., J. Jian, A.J. Gyawali*, W.E. Thomason, B.D. Badgley, M.S. Reiter, and M.S. Strickland. 2018. What we talk about when we talk about soil health. Agric. Environ. Letters. 3(1):1-5.
  • Williams, A.S.*, M.R. Parvej, D.L. Holshouser, W.H. Frame, and M.S. Reiter. 2018. Correlation and calibration of soil-test potassium from different soil depths for full-season soybean on coarse-textured soils. Agron. J. 110(1):369-379.
  • Wimer-Fleming*, C., M.S. Reiter, R.O. Maguire, and S. Phillips. 2018. Long-term impacts of poultry litter on soil pH and phosphorus in no-till. Better Crops Plant Food. 102(2):21-23.
  • Williams, A.S.*, M.R. Parvej, D.L. Holshouser, W.H. Frame, and M.S. Reiter. 2017. Correlation of field-moist, oven-dry, and air-dry soil potassium for mid-Atlantic USA soybean. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 81(6):1586-1594.
  • Bock, E.*, N. Smith*, M. Rogers, B. Coleman, M. Reiter, B. Benham, and Z. Easton. 2015. Enhanced nitrate and phosphate removal in a denitrifying bioreactor with biochar. J. Environ. Qual. 44(2):605-613.
  • Han, K., P. Kleinman, L. Saporito, C. Church, M. McGrath, M. Reiter, S. Tingle, A. Allen, L. Wang, and R. Bryant. 2015. Phosphorus and nitrogen leaching before and after tillage and urea application. J. Envion. Qual. 44:560-571.
  • Hunolt, A.E.*, R.O Maguire, J.A. Ogejo, B.D. Badgley, W.H. Frame, and M.S Reiter. 2015. Multiple applications of sodium biosulfate to broiler litter affect ammonia release and litter properties. J. Environ. Qual. 44(6):1903-1910.
  • Jones, J.R.*, C.S. Fleming, K. Pavuluri, M.M. Alley, M.S. Reiter, and W.E. Thomason. 2015. Influence of soil, crop residue, and sensor orientations on NDVI readings. Precision Agric. 16:690-704.
  • Kleinman, P., C. Church, L. Saporito, J. McGrath, M. Reiter, A. Allen, S. Tingle, G. Binford, K. Han, and B. Joern. 2015. Phosphorus leaching from agricultural soils of the Delmarva Peninsula, USA. J. Environ. Qual. 44:524-534.
  • Pavuluri, K.*, B. Chim, C. Griffey, M. Reiter, M. Balota, and W. Thomason. 2015. Canopy spectral reflectance can predict grain nitrogen use efficiency in soft red winter wheat. Precision Agric. 16:718-719.
  • Pavuluri, K.*, B. Chim, C. Griffey, M. Reiter, M. Balota, and W. Thomason. 2015. Canopy spectral reflectance can predict grain nitrogen use efficiency in soft red winter wheat. Precision Agric. 16:405-424.
  • Pavuluri, K.*, M.S. Reiter, M. Balota, C.A. Griffey, and W.E. Thomason. 2014. Commodity cover crop nitrogen management effects on winter barley in the Mid-Atlantic coastal plain. Agron. J. 106:577-584.
  • Pollard, S.*, J. Barak, R. Boyer, M. Reiter, G. Gu, and S. Rideout. 2014. Potential interactions between Salmonella enterica and Ralstonia solanacearum in tomato plants. J. Food Protection. 77(2):320-324.
  • Reiter, M.S., T.C. Daniel, N.A. Slaton, and R.J. Norman. 2014. Nitrogen availability from granulated fortified poultry litter fertilizers. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 78:861-867.
  • Rideout, S.L., G. Gu, M.S. Reiter, J. Zheng, and E.W. Brown. 2014. Salmonella contamination and persistence in tomato fields as affected by irrigation, fertilization, and cultivation practices. Phytopathology 104(11):98-99.
  • Fleming, C.S.*, M.S. Reiter, J.H. Freeman, and R.O. Maguire. 2013. Optimizing irrigation of fresh market tomatoes grown in the mid-Atlantic United States. HortTechnology. 23(6):859-867.
  • Reiter, M.S. and T.C. Daniel. 2013. Binding agents effect on physical and chemical attributes of nitrogen-fortified poultry litter and biosolids granules. Transactions ASABE. 56(5):1695-1702. 
  • Reiter, M.S., T.C. Daniel, P.B. DeLaune, A.N. Sharpley, and J.A. Lory. 2013. Effects of long-term poultry litter application on phosphorus soil chemistry and runoff water quality. J. Environ. Qual. 42(6):1829-1837.
  • Rideout, S.L., G. Gu, M.S. Reiter, J.H. Freeman, R.R. Boyer, C. Waldenmaier, and K. Fieldler. 2013. Effects of fumigation and bactericide application on the decontamination of Salmonella enterica. Phytopathology. 103(6):120-121.
  • Reiter, M.S., S.L. Rideout, and J.H. Freeman. 2012. Nitrogen fertilizer and growth regulator impacts on tuber deformity, rot, and yield for Russet potatoes. 7 pages. Int. J. Agron. Article ID: 348754. doi: 10.1155/2012/348754.
  • Carson, J.C.*, J.H. Freeman, K. Zhou, G. Welbaum, and M.S. Reiter. 2011. Cultivar evaluation and lipid protein contents of Virginia grown edamame. HortTechnology. 21:131-135.
  • Thomason, W.E., S.B. Phillips, P.H. Davis, J.G. Warren, M.M. Alley, and M.S. Reiter. 2011. In season nitrogen weight determination from plant spectral reflectance in soft red winter wheat. Prec. Agric. 12(5):666-681.
  • He, Z., H. Zhang, G.S. Toor, Z. Dou, C.W. Honeycutt, B.E. Haggard, and M.S. Reiter. 2010. Phosphorus distribution in sequentially extracted fractions of biosolids, poultry litter, and granulated products. Soil Sci. 175(4):154-161.
  • Reiter, M.S., D.W. Reeves, and C.H. Burmester. 2008. Cotton nitrogen management in a high-residue conservation system: Source, rate, method, and timing. Soil Sci. Soc. Am J. 72(5):1330-1336.
  • Reiter, M.S., D.W. Reeves, C.H. Burmester, and H.A. Torbert. 2008. Cotton nitrogen management in a high-residue conservation system: Cover crop fertilization. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 72(5):1321-1329.
  • Toor, G.S., B.E. Haggard, M.S. Reiter, T.C. Daniel, and A.M. Donoghue. 2007. Phosphorus solubility in poultry litters and granulates: Influence of litter treatments and extraction ratios. Trans. ASABE. 50(2):533-542.

            Technical and Extension Publications (Total Number: 68)

  • Reiter, M.S., T.P. Kuhar, L. Lopez, L. Strawn, E. Torres Quezada, S.L. Rideout, and D.B. Langston. 2022. 2022 Southeastern U.S. Vegetable Crop Handbook. J.M. Kemble (ed). Southeast Vegetable Extension Workers. Vegetable Growers News, Sparta, MI. Available at: https://vegetablegrowersnews.com/2022-southeast-vegetable-crop-handbook/.
  • Reiter, M.S., J.B. Samtani, E. Torres Quezada, V. Singh, H.B. Doughty, T.P. Kuhar, K.L. Sutton, J.M. Wilson, D.B. Langston, S.L. Rideout, J.A. Parkhurst, and L.K. Strawn. 2022. 2022-2023 Mid-Atlantic commercial vegetable recommendations. Publ. SPES-391P. Virginia Cooperative Extension, Blacksburg.
  • Kuhar, T., M. Reiter, S. Rideout, and V. Singh. 2021. Critical updates for the 2021 mid-Atlantic commercial vegetable recommendations. Publ. SPES-193P. Virginia Cooperative Extension, Blacksburg.
  • Pittman, P., U. Deitch, M. Reiter, V. Singh, J. Mason, K. Duerksen, J. Haymaker, et al. 2021. 2021 Virtual Eastern Shore Agricultural Conference and Trade Show. Publ. SPES-312NP. Virginia Cooperative Extension, Blacksburg.
  • Reiter, M.S., J. Ignosh, C. Neill, E. Zimmerman, K. Hughes-Evans, and V. Morris. 2021. Financial feasibility and market analysis of poultry litter ash fertilizer granules. SPES-330NP. Virginia Cooperative Extension, Blacksburg.
  • Reiter, M.S., T.P. Kuhar, S.L. Rideout, and D.B. Langston. 2021. 2021 Southeastern U.S. Vegetable Crop Handbook. J.M. Kemble (ed). Southeast Vegetable Extension Workers. Meister Media Worldwide, Willoughby, OH. Available at: https://vegetablegrowersnews.com/catalogs/2021-southeastern-u-s-vegetable-crop-handbook/.
  • Reiter, M., L. Lopez, E. Torres, T. Kuhar, K. Brooks, B. Zhang, and D. Goerlich. 2021. 2021 Eastern Shore AREC Interactive Research Field Day. Publ. SPES-359NP. Virginia Cooperative Extension, Blacksburg.
  • Reiter, M.S. and R.O. Maguire. 2021. Lime: Common soil additives to raise soil pH in Virginia. Publ. SPES-298NP. Virginia Cooperative Extension, Blacksburg.
  • Reiter, M.S. 2020. Common fertilizers used in Virginia: Nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Publ. SPES-199NP. Virginia Cooperative Extension, Blacksburg.
  • Reiter, M.S. 2020. Common fertilizers used in Virginia: Secondary and micronutrients. Publ. SPES-200NP. Virginia Cooperative Extension, Blacksburg.
  • Reiter, M.S. 2020. Conversion factors needed for common fertilizer calculations. Publ. SPES-201NP. Virginia Cooperative Extension, Blacksburg.
  • Reiter, M.S., H.B. Doughty, T.P. Kuhar, J.M. Wilson, D.B. Langston, S.L. Rideout, J.A. Parkhurst, and L.K. Strawn. 2020. 2020-2021 Mid-Atlantic commercial vegetable production recommendations. Publ. SPES-193P. Virginia Cooperative Extension, Blacksburg.
  • Reiter, M.S. and C.R. Ervin*. 2020. Fertilizer: The many forms you can use. Publ. SPES-187NP. Virginia Cooperative Extension, Blacksburg.
  • Reiter, M.S., Kuhar, T.P., S.L. Rideout, and D.B. Langston. 2020. 2020 Southeastern U.S. Vegetable Crop Handbook. J.M. Kemble (ed). Southeast Vegetable Extension Workers. Meister Media Worldwide, Willoughby, OH. Available at: https://www.aces.edu/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/2020_SEVG_final_web.pdf
  • Reiter, M., V. Singh, J. Mason, K. Duerksen, J. Haymaker, T. Hines, et al. (2020). 2020 Virginia Tech Eastern Shore AREC Virtual Field Day. Publ. SPES-239NP. Virginia Cooperative Extension, Blacksburg.
  • Reiter, M.S., W.E. Thomason, and W.H. Frame. 2020. Foliar injury: Spring nitrogen applications to small grains. Publ. SPES-197NP. Virginia Cooperative Extension, Blacksburg.
  • Reiter, M.S., S.L. Rideout, T.P. Kuhar, R.A. Arancibia, L.K. Strawn, D.B. Langston, Jr., J. Samtani, H.B. Doughty, and J.M. Wilson. 2019. 2019 Mid-Atlantic Commercial Vegetable Production Recommendations. Publ. 456-420. Virginia Cooperative Extension, Blacksburg.
  • Reiter, M.S., S.L. Rideout, T.P. Kuhar, R.A. Arancibia, and R.A. Straw. 2019. 2019 Southeastern U.S. 2019 Vegetable Crop Handbook. J.M. Kemble (ed.) Southeastern Vegetable Extension Workers Group. Meister Media Worldwide, Willoughby, OH.
  • Zhang, B., N. Lord*, S. Li, M. Reiter, S. Rideout, J. Pollock, C. Neill, T. Kuhar, K. Sutton*, S. Duncan, R. Carneiro*, H. Huang, D. Yu*, and Y. Yin. 2019. USDA edamame project. Publ. SPES-104NP. Virginia Cooperative Extension, Blacksburg.
  • Arancibia, R.A., C. Cahoon, H.B. Doughty, T.P. Kuhar, D.B. Langston, and M.S. Reiter. 2018. 2018 Mid-Atlantic commercial vegetable production recommendations. Publ. 456-420. Virginia Cooperative Extension, Blacksburg.
  • Arancibia, R.A., R.A. Straw, T.P. Kuhar, S.L. Rideout, and M.S. Reiter. 2018. 2018 Southeastern U.S. Vegetable Crop Handbook. J.M. Kemble (ed). Southeast Vegetable Extension Workers. Meister Media Worldwide, Willoughby, OH.
  • Reiter, M.S. 2018. Establishing a successful Extension program. Crops, Soils, Agronomy News. ASA-CSSA-SSSA, Madison, WI.
  • Reiter, M.S., W.H. Frame, and W.E. Thomason. 2018. Consider your whole system: Nitrogen and sulfur leaching potential in Virginia. Publ. SPES-39. Virginia Coop. Exten., Blacksburg.
  • Reiter, M.S., W.H. Frame, J.S. Reiter, J.L. Spencer, and W.E. Thomason. 2017. Yellow corn in Virginia – Spring 2017. Publ. CSES-193NP. Virginia Cooperative Extension, Blacksburg.
  • Reiter, M.S., S.L. Rideout, T.P. Kuhar, R.A. Arancibia, et. al. 2017. 2017 Southeastern U.S. Vegetable Crop Handbook. J.M. Kemble (ed.) Southeastern Vegetable Extension Workers Group. Vance Publ. Corp., Lincolnshire, IL.
  • Frame, W.H., D.A. Herbert, H.L. Mehl, H.P. Wilson, M.S. Reiter, and M.L. Flessner. 2016. Virginia cotton production guide 2016. Publ. AREC-124NP. Virginia Cooperative Extension, Blacksburg.
  • Reiter, M.S., W.H. Frame, W.E. Thomason, J.S. Reiter, and J.L. Spencer. 2016. Yellow corn in Virginia – Spring 2016. Publ. CSES-171NP. Virginia Cooperative Extension, Blacksburg.
  • Reiter, M.S., S.L. Rideout, T.P. Kuhar, R.A. Arancibia, L.K. Strawn, J.A. Parkhurst, D.B. Langston, Jr., J. Samtani, G. Gu, C.D. Mullins, T.E. Hines, and H.B. Doughty. 2016. 2016-2017 Mid-Atlantic Commercial Vegetable Production Recommendations. Publ. 456-420. Virginia Cooperative Extension, Blacksburg.
  • Reiter, M.S., S.L. Rideout, T.P. Kuhar, R.A. Arancibia, et. al. 2016. 2016 Southeastern U.S. Vegetable Crop Handbook. J.M. Kemble (ed.) Southeastern Vegetable Extension Workers Group. Vance Publ. Corp., Lincolnshire, IL.
  • Frame, W., D. Herbert, H. Wilson, M. Reiter, and M. Flessner. 2015. Virginia cotton production guide, 2015. Publ. AREC-124. Virginia Cooperative Extension, Blacksburg.
  • Reiter, M.S., U.T. Deitch, W.H. Frame, D.E. Holshouser, and W.E. Thomason. 2015. The nutrient value of straw. Publ. CSES-126NP. Virginia Cooperative Extension, Blacksburg.
  • Reiter, M.S., S.L. Rideout, T.P. Kuhar, R.A. Arancibia, L.K. Strawn, J.A. Parkhurst, D.B. Langston, Jr., J. Samtani, G. Gu, C.D. Mullins, T.E. Hines, and H.B. Doughty. 2015. 2015 Commercial Vegetable Production Recommendations – Virginia. Publ. 456-420. Virginia Cooperative Extension, Blacksburg.
  • Reiter, M.S., S.L. Rideout, T.P. Kuhar, R.A. Arancibia, et. al. 2015. 2015 Southeastern U.S. Vegetable Crop Handbook. J.M. Kemble (ed.) Southeastern Vegetable Extension Workers Group. Vance Publ. Corp., Lincolnshire, IL.
  • Reiter, M.S. and W.E. Thomason. 2015. Nitrogen and sulfur leaching potential in Virginia. Publ. CSES-125NP. Virginia Cooperative Extension, Blacksburg.
  • Frame, W.H., D.A. Herbert, P.M. Phipps, H.L. Mehl, H.P. Wilson, and M.S. Reiter. 2014. Virginia cotton production guide 2014. Publ. AREC-62NP. Virginia Cooperative Extension, Blacksburg.
  • Reiter, M.S., J.E. Mason*, and W.E. Thomason. 2014. Sensor based variable rate nitrogen applications in Virginia. Publ. CSES-90P. Virginia Cooperative Extension, Blacksburg.
  • Reiter, M.S., S.L. Rideout, T.P. Kuhar, R.A. Straw, et. al. 2014. 2014 Southeastern U.S. Vegetable Crop Handbook. J.M. Kemble, K. Ivors, F.J. Louws, K.M. Jennings, and J.F. Walgenbach (eds.) Southeastern Vegetable Extension Workers Group. Vance Publ. Corp., Lincolnshire, IL.
  • Reiter, M.S., S.L. Rideout, T.P. Kuhar, H.P. Wilson, J.H. Freeman, J.A. Parkhurst, R.A. Straw, J. Samtani, G. Gu, C.D. Mullins, T.E. Hines, C.M. Waldenmaier, H.B. Doughty, and J.E. Mason*. 2014. 2014 Commercial Vegetable Production Recommendations – Virginia. Publ. 456-420. Virginia Cooperative Extension, Blacksburg.
  • Frame, W.H. and M.S. Reiter. 2013. Enhanced efficiency fertilizer materials: Nitrogen stabilizers. Publ. CSES-52P. Virginia Cooperative Extension, Blacksburg.
  • Freeman, J.H., R.A. Straw, S.L. Rideout, M.S. Reiter, et. al. 2013. Southeastern U.S. 2013 Vegetable Crop Handbook. J.M. Kemble, K. Ivors, F.J. Louws, K.M. Jennings, and J.F. Walgenbach (eds.) Southeastern Vegetable Extension Workers Group. Vance Publ. Corp., Lincolnshire, IL.
  • Freeman, J.H., H.P. Wilson, T.P. Kuhar, S.L. Rideout, M.S. Reiter, R.A. Straw, T.E. Hines, C.M. Waldenmaier, H.B. Doughty, and U.T. Deitch*. 2013. Commercial Vegetable Production Recommendations – Virginia, 2013. Publ. 456-420. Virginia Cooperative Extension, Blacksburg.
  • Holshouser, D., D.A. Herbert, Jr., P. Phipps, and M. Reiter. 2013. Troubleshooting the soybean crop. Publ. AREC-25NP. Virginia Cooperative Extension, Blacksburg.
  • Reiter, M.S., J.H. Freeman, S.T. Reiter, and C.H. Horton. 2013. Increasing fresh produce availability from local sources. Publ. AREC-50NP. Virginia Cooperative Extension, Blacksburg.
  • Reiter, M.S. and D.L. Holshouser. 2013. Manganese deficiencies. Publ. AREC-49NP. D.L. Holshouser (ed.) Virginia Cooperative Extension, Blacksburg. Virginia Soybean Update. Vol. 13(3):1-2.
  • Reiter. M., D. Holshouser, and A. Stewart*. 2013. Revisiting potassium fertility in soybean. Publ. VCE-197.Virginia Ag Expo Extra. L. Greiner (ed.) Virginia Cooperative Extension, Blacksburg.
  • Thomason, W. and M. Reiter. 2013. Improving in-season nitrogen management for corn. Publ. VCE-197.Virginia Ag Expo Extra. L. Greiner (ed.) Virginia Cooperative Extension, Blacksburg.
  • Freeman, J.H., T.P. Kuhar, M.S. Reiter, S.L. Rideout, H.W. Wilson, R.A. Straw, T.E. Hines, C.M. Waldenmaier, H.B. Doughty*, and U.T. Deitch*. 2012. Commercial Vegetable Production Recommendations - Virginia, 2012. Publ. 456-420. Virginia Cooperative Extension, Blacksburg.
  • Freeman, J.H., R.A. Straw, S.L. Rideout, M.S. Reiter, et. al. 2012. Southeastern U.S. 2012 Vegetable Crop Handbook. J.M. Kemble, F.J. Louws, K.M. Jennings, and J.F. Walgenbach (eds.) Southeastern Vegetable Extension Workers Group. Vance Publ. Corp., Lincolnshire, IL.
  • Reiter, M.S. 2012. Cotton fertility. In Virginia Cotton Production Guide 2012. Publ. AREC-8. pg. 1-4. Virginia Cooperative Extension, Blacksburg.
  • Reiter, M.S. 2012. Tillage practices. In Virginia Cotton Production Guide 2012. Publ. AREC-8. pg. 5-7. Virginia Cooperative Extension, Blacksburg.
  • Freeman J.H., T. Kuhar, M.S. Reiter, S.L. Rideout, H.W. Wilson, C. Johnson, R. Straw, H. Doughty*, T. Hines, and C. Waldenmaier. 2011. Commercial Vegetable Production Recommendations - Virginia, 2011. Publ. 456-420. Virginia Cooperative Extension, Blacksburg.
  • Freeman, J.H., R.A. Straw, S.L. Rideout, M.S. Reiter, et. al. 2011. Southeastern U.S. 2011 Vegetable Crop Handbook. J.M. Kemble, F.J. Louws, K.M. Jennings, and J.F. Walgenbach (eds.) Southeastern Vegetable Extension Workers Group. Vance Publ. Corp., Lincolnshire, IL.
  • Reiter, M.S. 2011. Cotton fertility. In Virginia Cotton Production Guide 2011. Publ. 2810-1019. pg. 1-4. Virginia Cooperative Extension, Blacksburg.
  • Reiter, M.S. 2011. Tillage practices. In Virginia Cotton Production Guide 2011. Publ. 2810-1019. pg. 5-6. Virginia Cooperative Extension, Blacksburg.
  • Alley, M.M., J.S. Reiter, W.E. Thomason, and M.S. Reiter. 2010. Pop-up and/or starter fertilizers for corn. Publ. 3002-1438. Virginia Cooperative Extension, Blacksburg.
  • Reiter, M.S., M.M. Alley, W.E. Thomason, and J.S. Reiter. 2010. Corn fertility update – Spring 2010. Publ. 3006-1448. Virginia Cooperative Extension, Blacksburg.
  • Rideout, S.L., M.S. Reiter, J.H. Freeman, et. al. 2010. Southeastern U.S. Vegetable Crop Handbook – 2010. Kemble, J.M., and G.J. Holmes (eds.) Southeastern Vegetable Extension Workers. Vance Publ. Corp., Lincolnshire, IL.
  • Wilson, H.P., T.P. Kuhar, S.L. Rideout, J.H. Freeman, M.S. Reiter, R.A. Straw, T.E. Hines, C.M. Waldenmaier, H.B. Doughty*, U.T. Deitch, and J.D. Aigner, Jr. 2010. Commercial Vegetable Production Recommendations. Publ. 456-420. Virginia Cooperative Extension, Blacksburg.
  • Kuhar, T.P., H.B. Doughty*, J.H. Freeman, R.A. Straw, C.M. Waldenmaier, S.L. Rideout, M.S. Reiter, H.P. Wilson, and T.E. Hines. 2009. Commercial Vegetable Production Recommendations. Publ. 456-420. Virginia Cooperative Extension, Blacksburg.
  • Reiter, M.S. 2009. Cotton fertility. In Virginia Cotton Production Guide 2009. Publ. 2810-1019. p. 1-4. Virginia Cooperative Extension, Blacksburg.
  • Reiter, M.S., S.B. Phillips, R.O. Maguire, and J.G. Warren. 2009. Nitrogen management for white potato production. Publ. 438-012. Virginia Cooperative Extension, Blacksburg.
  • Rideout, S.L., M.S. Reiter, J.H. Freeman, et. al. 2009. Southeastern U.S. Vegetable Crop Handbook – 2009. Kemble, J.M., and G.J. Holmes (eds.) Southeastern Vegetable Extension Workers. Vance Publ. Corp., Lincolnshire, IL.
  • Reiter, M.S., T.C. Daniel, R.G. Hinkle, and M.D. Richardson. 2008. Runoff water quality from turfgrass applications of nitrogen fortified poultry litter and biosolids fertilizers using simulated rainfall. Res. Ser. 558. p. 45-48. In N.A. Slaton (ed.) Wayne E. Sabbe Arkansas Soil Fertility Studies 2007. Arkansas Agric. Expt. Stn., Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville.
  • Reiter, M.S., T.C. Daniel, and M. Mozaffari. 2008. Seed cotton yield from applications of nitrogen-fortified poultry litter granular fertilizers. Res. Ser. 562. p. 48-52.  In D. Oosterhuis (ed.) Summaries of Arkansas Cotton Research 2007. Arkansas Agric. Expt. Stn., Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville.
  • Reiter, M.S., T.C. Daniel, N.A. Slaton, and R.J. Norman. 2008. Rice yield and nitrogen recovery from nitrogen-fortified poultry litter granular fertilizers. Res. Ser. 558. p. 49-53. In N.A. Slaton (ed.) Wayne E. Sabbe Arkansas Soil Fertility Studies 2007. Arkansas Agric. Expt. Stn., Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville.
  • Reiter, M.S., T.C. Daniel, N.A. Slaton, C.E. Wilson, Jr., C.H. Tingle, and B.R. Bock. 2006. Broiler litter and litter ash effects on rice in an eastern Arkansas rotation. Res. Ser. 525. p. 81-85. In N.A. Slaton (ed.) Wayne E. Sabbe Arkansas Soil Fertility Studies 2005. Arkansas Agric. Expt. Stn., Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville.
  • Reiter, M.S., T.C. Daniel, N.A. Slaton, C.E. Wilson, Jr., C.H. Tingle, and B.R. Bock. 2005. Poultry litter ash and raw litter residual effects on wheat and soybean in an eastern Arkansas rice, wheat, and soybean rotation. Res. Ser. 525. p. 72-77. In N.A. Slaton (ed.) Wayne E. Sabbe Arkansas Soil Fertility Studies 2004. Arkansas Agric. Expt. Stn., Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville.
  • Reiter, M.S., T.C. Daniel, N.A. Slaton, C.E. Wilson, Jr., C.H. Tingle, and B.R. Bock. 2004. Effects of poultry litter ash and raw litter on rice in an eastern Arkansas rice, wheat, and soybean rotation. Res. Ser. 515. p. 58-60. In N.A. Slaton (ed.) Wayne E. Sabbe Arkansas Soil Fertility Studies 2003. Arkansas Agric. Expt. Stn., Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville.
  • Joey Haymaker, PhD Student

Joseph Haymaker works on multiple projects focusing on cover crops and their impacts on nutrient cycling, soil health, and crop yields. Joseph received both his B.S. in Biology and M.S. in Food and Agricultural Sciences from the University of Maryland Eastern Shore. Since his arrival in June 2020, he has managed the long-term cover cropping systems study at the ESAREC. In this study, he is looking at the impacts of different cover crop species/mixes and crop rotations on nutrient cycling, soil moisture retention, soil compaction alleviation, cash crop yields, and the economics of these systems. In addition to his research at the ESAREC, he also works on the Precision Sustainable Agriculture project, which is a multi-state on-farm cover cropping project, that is looking at cover crop decomposition and nutrient release, soil moisture retention, and cash crop yield. This work is being conducted on farms throughout the eastern part of Virginia. Joseph's expected graduation date is December 2023. 

Thomas Badon
  • Thomas Badon, Masters Student

Thomas researches phosphorus fertility and dynamics on the Eastern Shore of Virginia

Mary Michael

Mary Michael Lipford, Masters Student

  • Mary Michael's research focuses on cover crop timing and planting methods for improved soil health and nutrient leaching.